Healthy Hair and Maintenance

Healthy Hair and Maintenance

How you style your hair says a lot about your personality. If you want your style to stand out, start with healthy hair care, because healthy hair makes everyone look good.

You don’t need to make a trip to the salon to consult a hair care expert. If you understand the structure of your hair, you can style your hair however you want. Check out this article to learn all about hair health, hair ingredients, and hair care.

Hair grows from under the skin

Hair is one of the hallmarks of mammals (yes, even whales have some). It spreads all over the body and is almost everywhere; the only places where no hair grows on the body surface are the soles of the feet, palms and lips.

It’s part of the dermis (the body system that includes your skin, nails, and hair), and your hair grows from the bottom layer of your skin: the dermis .

The part of the hair that grows in the dermis is called the “hair follicle,” and the part visible above the epidermis (the top layer of the skin) is called the “hair shaft.”

Your hair grows from follicles, hollow tubes in the dermal tissue that receive blood and nutrients from blood vessels . At the base of the follicle is the bulb, the living part of the hair. The cells of the hair follicle bulb grow and divide, eventually forming the hair shaft.

When the cells at the base of the hair follicle die, they leave behind a tough protein called cutin (keratin), a process called keratinization. As new cells develop in the hair follicle bulb, this protein is pushed through the hair follicle to the outside. Keratinocytes build up in layers and push out of the skin to form the hair shaft.

People often define hair as a dead body; this is certainly the case for palpable hair. In fact, your hair is made from the protein of the dead cells in the hair follicle, so you can get a haircut without pain.

The hair shaft consists of three layers of cutin, the innermost layer is called the medulla, the middle and thickest layer is called the cortex, and the outer layer is the epidermis. The outermost part is composed of thin scale-like cutin overlapping like rubble.

As strands of hair leave the follicle and cross the cuticle, they pass glands in the skin called sebaceous glands that secrete sebum, an oil that conditions and softens each strand of hair.

During puberty, overactive sebaceous glands can make hair look greasy; as we age, the glands slow down oil production, sometimes making hair appear drier.

The Life Cycle of Healthy Hair

Hair follicles grow hair at a very noticeable rate. Your hair can grow 6 inches (15 cm) per year, and the only thing in your body that can grow faster than your hair is your bone marrow .

Hair growth has a certain life cycle, so each hair follicle is active at a different time. There are three stages in the life cycle of hair: growth stage, transition stage and resting stage, which are called growth stage, degenerative stage and resting stage of hair respectively.

Most of the hair on your head is in the growth phase, which is the growth phase. During hair growth, the cells inside the hair follicle bulb divide rapidly and push the old hair up and out of the follicle.

Anagen hair grows about 1 cm every 28 days. This active growth phase can last up to six years, depending on the individual. People with naturally shorter hair also have shorter anagen phases, while people with long hair have longer anagen phases.

Next comes the transition phase. The catagen phase is the period in the hair life cycle when it stops growing. This is the shortest phase and lasts about two to three weeks.

Hair in the degenerative period is called clubbing. The follicular bulb at the base of the follicle hardens and attaches to the root of the hair shaft, forming a hard white tissue. You can see this clubbing on recently lost hair.

The hair you find on your brush, comb or pillow is in the final stage of its life cycle: telogen. During telogen, hair follicles that are actively growing hair stop. During this stage, the hair falls out, which means the clubs are pushed out of the follicle by new hairs that grow in the same place.

The resting period lasts approximately 100 days. In a normal day, about 25 to 100 telogen hairs will fall out. When you comb your hair with your fingers, you will find that a few hairs fall out, or when you wash your hair and massage your scalp, it will also loosen the telogen hair.

Take good care of your hair, no matter what stage of its life cycle it is in; short, limp hair means it’s growing, and even-length hair means it’s transitioning from catagen to telogen. Be gentle when you’re brushing or styling your hair, as you don’t want to pull out growing hair.

Hair Texture and Color: What You Were Born to Do

Many people use hair products and tools to get their hair the way they want. But you’re born with a natural hairstyle, and it depends on the shape of your follicles and the pigment in your hair.

The shape of the hair follicle shapes your hair and the way it grows, it creates its unique look and texture. If you look at a cross-section of hair under a microscope, you can see the shape of the hair follicle.

Round follicles produce straight hair, some oval or egg-shaped follicles produce straight hair, while wavy hair comes from large-diameter oval follicles, and band-shaped follicles create curls.

It has a lot to do with your race.

People of African descent have ribbon-shaped follicles, which can make hair curly; Asians have more round follicles, which can produce straight hair; Caucasians usually have oval follicles, which can grow straight or wavy hair .

As for the color of hair, it is most related to melanin. Melanin, which builds up in the cortex of the hair shaft, is the same pigment used in skin cells (called melanocytes) to determine skin color.

A large amount of melanin in the cortex makes the hair black. The less melanin you have, the lighter your hair will be. Gray hair occurs when melanin no longer accumulates in the cortex with age.

There’s more than one way to describe all hair colors and textures. Hair grows in different layers, with varying degrees of straight and curly, or different shades of color. You can see these changes by looking at the hair of your parents or siblings. No two people’s hair is the same. So you can be proud of the unique look and style of your hair.

your hair, skin and nails

There is no doubt that your hair, skin and nails are all part of the same body system (the integumentary system). Since they are made of the same material (keratin), they have many similarities, such as:

  • Cutin in hair is like fingernails and toenails , the protein that makes hair and nails tough and strong.
  • Hair grows out of the skin, as do nails. The folds of the cuticle at the ends of your fingers and toes push the layer of keratinized skin cells to the surface to form your fingernails and toenails.
  • Skin cells called keratinocytes also produce keratin, which helps make the skin a protective barrier.
  • Just like cutting your hair doesn’t hurt, cutting your nails doesn’t hurt because your hair or nails don’t have nerve endings.
  • Your hair color and skin tone are determined by the same pigment, called melanin.

How to Have Healthy Hair

A healthy lifestyle is the best way to help your hair look great, and from your grooming to your diet, there are many ways to keep your hair happy. You might as well start with good hygiene habits, starting with keeping your hair clean.

  1. wash your hair often

Shampoo and condition your hair regularly, say every two days. Washing your hair with shampoo removes the oil and dirt that can make your hair look dull. Conditioner adds natural softness and shine to hair.

  1. comb hair gently

Remember to brush your hair gently after shampooing to avoid tangles or tangles. To detangle tangles, start at the bottom and work your way up, this will reduce pulling on growing hair.

  1. regular haircut

Get regular trims from a professional hairstylist to keep your hair looking beautiful and soft. When the ends of the hair are damaged, they start to fray and deteriorate all the way down the hair shaft. A haircut can trim those starting split ends and prevent the damage from spreading.

  1. A healthy diet for hair

When it comes to diet, there are certain foods that can help your hair grow more beautiful. Daily intake of the following essential nutrients is advisable :

  • Iron: You need iron in your diet to maintain blood flow to your hair follicles. Get iron in lean red meat, spinach, and iron-fortified cereals or muesli.
  • Vitamin C: This powerful antioxidant supports collagen production . Collagen is important for skin, and it also helps strengthen hair. Vitamin C can be found in bell peppers, citrus fruits and berries.
  • Vitamin A: If you want long, naturally shiny hair, get plenty of vitamin A in your diet. Sweet potatoes, carrots, and spinach are all rich in vitamin A. This carotenoid supports sebum production and is your body’s natural conditioner. Vitamin A has also been shown to promote thicker, fuller hair growth.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids : These healthy fats help keep hair shiny and full, and this nutrient can be found in fatty fish, nuts, seeds, and avocados.
  • Biotin: This B vitamin helps your body produce natural cuticles. And if it is seriously lacking, it may cause hair loss (if there is a lack of other B vitamins at the same time, including riboflavin, folic acid and vitamin B12, etc.). However, while biotin is commonly found in hair growth supplements, there are currently no clinical studies to prove that very high doses are beneficial in healthy individuals. Beef, eggs, and salmon are common sources of biotin.

take care of your hair

The concept of good habits and proper diet is never out of date, it is the first step in healthy hair care. You can maintain the beauty of your hair with regular haircuts and good hygiene. A little heat protectant can be used before styling with a blow dryer or curling iron. You should also supplement your diet with a holistic approach to taking care of all your body’s needs to maintain your natural beauty.

You should be confident that your hair-healthy lifestyle will provide you with “hair moments” for years to come.

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understand your five senses 1

understand your five senses

When you first wake up, your five senses are not fully awakened and are not very sharp. The sunlight streaming in through your windows, the smell of breakfast , the sound of your alarm clock are all products of your environment, your senses and your brain.

The ability to hear, touch, see, taste and smell is firmly connected to your body. These five senses allow you to understand and respond to the world around you. Now let’s get into all your feelings.

Functions of the five senses

Your senses connect you to your environment. With the information your senses gather, you can understand and respond more intelligently. For example, a bitter taste can alert you that food may be harmful; chirping from birds tells you that trees and water may be nearby.

Sensory organs collect various sensations and interpret them in the brain. But how does information like texture and light get into your body’s command center? The body’s nervous system has a specialized branch that deals with sensation. You might have guessed that it’s called the “sensory nervous system.”

The sensory organs in the body (discussed further later) are connected to the brain by nerves, which transmit messages to the brain by means of electrochemical impulses. The sensory nervous system collects and sends a constant stream of sensory data from the environment; information about the color, shape and feel of nearby objects helps the brain determine what they are.

What are the five senses?

The body perceives five basic senses, which are hearing, touch, sight, taste and smell. Each of these senses is a tool the brain uses to build a clear picture of your world.

Your brain must rely on sensory organs to gather sensory information. The five sense organs involved are:

  • ear (auditory)
  • Skin and Hair (Tactile)
  • eyes (vision)
  • tongue (taste)
  • nose (sense of smell)

The data collected by the sense organs can help the brain understand the diversity and dynamics of the surrounding environment, which is also the key to the reaction and memory generation at that time. Now let’s dive into each of these senses and learn how you gather information about the sounds, textures, sights, tastes and smells you encounter.

sense of touch

The skin is the largest organ of the body and the primary sensory organ for touch . The scientific term for the sense of touch is mechanoreception.

The sense of touch may seem simple, but it’s actually a little more complicated than you might think. The human body can sense different forms of touch, as well as different temperatures and pressures.

Because touch is felt all over the body, the nerves that detect touch send their messages to the brain through the peripheral nervous system. Peripheral nerves are the nerves that extend from the spinal cord throughout the body.

Nerves under the skin send messages to the brain about your sense of touch. There are specialized nerve cells for different senses of touch, such as different touch receptors on the skin of the fingertips than on the skin of the arms and legs.

Fingertips can sense different textures and pressures on surfaces, such as the feel of sandpaper or the pressing of a button. The arms and legs are covered with skin, which best senses the extension and movement of the joints . The skin on your extremities also sends messages to your brain about where your body is.

The skin on the lips and soles of the feet is more sensitive to light touch. The tongue and throat also have their own touch receptors, and these nerves tell the brain how warm the food or drink is.


Speaking of food and drink, keep your mouth out of the water before discussing your next sensation. Taste (also called taste) allows your brain to receive information about the food you eat. While food is being chewed and mixed with saliva, your tongue is busy gathering sensory data about how your food tastes.

Tiny bumps all over the tongue are responsible for conveying flavors to the brain. These bumps are called taste buds, and there are thousands of them on the tongue. Every week, new taste buds replace old ones to keep your palate sharp.

At the center of these taste buds are 40-50 specialized taste cells. Molecules from the food bind to these specialized cells and generate nerve impulses, which are interpreted by the brain to let you know how the food tastes.

The tongue senses five basic tastes and transmits them to the brain. The five flavors are sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami; the last, “umami,” comes from the Japanese word for “delicious,” and umami comes from foods like broth and meat.

Typical examples of sweetness are sugar, sourness comes from foods such as citrus fruits and vinegar, salt combines with foods high in sodium to create a salty taste, and the tongue also senses it from foods such as coffee, kale and Brussels sprouts, and The bitterness of the drink.

Regarding the sense of taste, the previously accepted theory is that different regions on the tongue specialize in one of the five tastes. But this is no longer considered to be true, instead, current research shows that every taste can be detected at any point on the tongue.

So, during a meal or snack, your brain is constantly receiving messages about what you’re eating. As you chew and swallow, the different flavors of food mix together, and each taste on your tongue helps your brain perceive the taste of food.

At your next meal, see if you can identify each of the five flavors as you eat them. You’ll gain a new understanding of your brain and how it works so hard to discern food flavors.


The third sense is vision (also known as vision), which is produced by the brain and a pair of sensory organs – the eyes. Vision is often considered the strongest sense because people rely more on sight than hearing or smell for information about their surroundings.

When you look around, your eyes detect light on the visible spectrum. The colors on the visible spectrum are: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. The source of this light can be a lamp, a computer screen, or the sun.

When light bounces off objects around you, your eyes send signals to your brain, which creates recognizable images. Your eyes use light to read, identify colors, and even coordinate clothing to match.

Have you ever accidentally put on mismatched socks in the dark? Or arrive at the office only to realize your shirt is on backwards? This is why it is necessary to have a lamp in the closet to avoid misbehaving in clothing.

The eyes need light to send sensory information to the brain. Particles of light (called “photons”) enter the eye through the pupil and are focused on the retina (the light-sensitive part of the eye).

There are two types of photoreceptor cells in the retina: rods and cones. Rods are responsible for receiving information about the brightness of light, and cones are responsible for distinguishing colors; together, these photoreceptors collect light information and transmit the data to the brain.

When light hits the rods and cones, it turns on a protein called “rhinoviolet.” Rhodopsin triggers a cascade of signals that converge on the optic nerve, which connects the eye to the brain. The optic nerve is the wire that carries the messages received by the eye and connects directly to the brain.

After the brain receives the light data, it forms a visual image. What you “see” when you open your eyes is your brain’s interpretation of the light entering your eyes. The brain is easiest to understand its surroundings when there is plenty of light. That’s why picking out matching outfits in the dark can be quite difficult.

To see better, your eyes automatically adjust to let in the maximum amount of light, which is why your pupils dilate (get bigger) in the dark. This way, more light can enter the eye and produce the sharpest image in the brain.

So read, work, and play in well-lit areas to give your eyes as much light as they need. This reduces the strain on your eyes, allowing you to see more clearly and comfortably. Night lights can also be installed in hallways so you can safely see your way in the dark.


The scientific term for hearing is “hearing”. But this hearing shouldn’t make you nervous, hearing is a powerful feeling, one that can bring joy or save you from danger.

When you hear a loved one’s voice, your sense of hearing allows your brain to interpret the other person’s voice as familiar and familiar. The melody of your favorite song is another example of the role of hearing.

Sounds can also alert you to potential danger, bringing to mind car horns, train sirens and smoke alarms. Thanks to hearing, your brain can use these noises to keep you safe.

Your ears gather this sensory information for your brain, and it comes from sound waves (a type of mechanical energy); each set of sound waves is a vibration with a unique frequency. Your ears receive and amplify sound waves, and your brain interprets them as conversation, music, laughter…etc.

Ears come in all shapes and sizes, but they all have similarities. The fleshy part on the outside of the ear is called the pinna, and its purpose is to collect sound waves traveling in your environment and funnel them to the membrane at the end of the ear canal.

This membrane is called the tympanic membrane, or more commonly the eardrum. Sound waves bounce off the eardrum and cause vibrations that travel through the eardrum; these vibrations are amplified by the tiny bones attached to the other side of the eardrum.

After sound waves enter the ear and are amplified by the eardrum, they travel to fluid-filled tubes deep inside the ear. These tubes, called the cochlea, line their surface with tiny hair-like cells that can detect changes in the fluid around them. As sound waves travel through the cochlea, the fluid begins to move.

Fluid flows through the hair cells in the ear to generate nerve impulses, which are then sent to the brain. Remarkably, the sound waves were converted into electrochemical neural signals almost instantaneously. So what started out as a simple vibration turned into a familiar tone, all thanks to hearing.

the sense of smell

The fifth and final sense is that of smell. The sense of smell is very unique, because the sensory organ that detects smell is directly connected to the brain, so the human body has a super powerful sense of smell.

Odors enter your body through your nose, and they come from particles in the air that you capture as you breathe. Inhaling deeply through the nose and moving closer to the source of the smell can enhance the sense of smell.

Inside the nose is a large nerve called the “olfactory bulb,” which runs from the top of the nose and connects directly to the brain. Air molecules inhaled through the nose trigger a neural response in the olfactory bulb, which immediately informs the brain of an odor.

Higher concentrations of odor molecules produce deeper brain stimulation through the olfactory bulbs. This makes the strong smell offensive and disgusting. Lighter scents send milder signals to the brain.

You need your sense of smell for various reasons. Strong, unpleasant smells are a clear warning to the brain that the food you’re about to eat has gone bad. The sweet and pleasant scent relaxes you. Body odors (pheromones) can even help you bond with your loved ones. No matter the smell, your brain and nose work together so you can enjoy the smell.

Combination of different senses to create a stronger feeling

Your brain rarely responds to information from a single sensory sense; your five senses work together to paint a picture of your environment.

You can see this principle in action the next time you go for a walk .

Think about how you feel when you go out and make note of the various sensations you experience. Maybe you see a colorful sunset, or hear the murmur of a stream rushing over rocks, or maybe you touch some fallen leaves. Keeping an eye on the fusion of your senses means you’ll find it hard not to discover something new while walking.

Here are a few recognizable examples of sensory fusion:

smell taste taste

Just as a walk outside brings together your senses, so does a good meal . Taste is often used to describe the taste of food, but taste is actually a combination of taste and smell.

The five flavors mentioned earlier do not accurately describe the experience when eating. We have a hard time describing things like mint or pineapple as sweet, salty, sour, bitter or umami. But your brain doesn’t need to interpret flavors from your taste buds alone, your sense of smell can also help, which is called retronasal sense of smell.

When you eat, molecules enter the nasal cavity through the passage between your nose and mouth, where they are detected by the olfactory bulbs and interpreted in the brain. At the same time your taste buds also gather information about taste. The brain compiles this sensory data from the nose and tongue, which is what we call taste.

With the tongue and nose working together, eating mint is not just a bitter taste, it is a cool, refreshing and delicious food; a slice of pineapple is not only sour, its taste is a mixture of fragrant, sweet and sour.

You can see how your sense of smell affects taste through your nose when you eat. If you block this pathway, you’ll notice a dramatic reduction in flavor. Instead, by chewing slowly, you get more flavor out of your food. This allows more aromas to be detected in the nose.

sense and memory

It’s an interesting phenomenon that certain smells can bring about deep memories. The results of the study show that the location of the olfactory bulb in the brain allows some odors to trigger emotional memories.

Because the olfactory bulb is directly connected to the brain in two places: the amygdala and the hippocampus. These two regions are closely linked to emotion and memory. Smell is the only one of the five senses that reaches these two areas, which could explain why smells and fragrances can evoke emotions and memories that sight, hearing, and touch cannot.

What happens when you lose your senses?

Sometimes people experience a weakening or complete loss of sensation. If this affects you, you are not alone, there are many others who are going through the days you are going through.

This includes loss of vision or hearing. Blindness or deafness can start at birth or develop later in life , and it affects everyone differently. The important thing to realize is that even people who are deaf or blind can live full and rich lives.

Usually if one of the five senses is weakened or lost, the other four become stronger to help the brain form a complete picture of the environment. If you are blind or have poor vision, your sense of smell or hearing will become stronger; if you are deaf or hard of hearing, your sense of touch and vision will become more acute.

For those experiencing loss of feeling, there are many great tools available. If you’re feeling weak and need help, talk to someone you trust. Please also be respectful to those who are missing something.

Create healthy habits to support your five senses

These feelings can add color to your life, and it’s important to protect your healthy senses. It’s perfectly normal to feel weaker with age. Still, there are steps you can take to protect your senses and take care of your body.

Here are four important tips:

  • Be cautious with hearing. Prolonged exposure to loud, loud noises can damage the sound-producing eardrums in your ears. Always wear earplugs at loud concerts and when operating loud power tools. Listen to music at a lower volume. Take the necessary precautions for a lifetime of good hearing.
  • Wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from the sun. You can also help support your vision by eating foods that contain healthy fats, antioxidants (especially lutein and zeaxanthin), and vitamin A.
  • Protect your sensitive skin with sunscreen and moisturizer . And drink enough water to avoid dehydration.
  • Get into the habit of eating foods rich in vitamins and minerals. Eat whole foods, fruits and lots of vegetables . Nutritional supplements are also an easy and practical way to add to your healthy diet.

You can use your five senses for activities such as gardening, walking and cycling, and enjoying the sights, sounds and smells of your surroundings. Make healthy choices so you can continue to enjoy life with your five senses.

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24 questions about your baby teeth

24 questions about your baby teeth

You use your teeth every day, but you probably don’t know much about their anatomy. Maybe it’s time for you to start thinking about some of the questions and getting to know them more. Perhaps you have also flashed in your mind “what materials are teeth made of?”, or you may be curious from time to time: Are teeth considered bones ?

This is your lucky day.

Here are 24 small questions and answers to help you understand your teeth better. These problems run the gamut, from baby teeth to molars, plaque and floss. Come do the research so you can show off your knowledge at your next dentist visit.

Your teeth are attached to two skull bones in your skull. The upper row of teeth sits in the bone that forms the upper jaw (the maxilla); the lower jaw (jawbone) serves as the base for the lower row of teeth.

The mandible and maxilla are the two bones that make up the “jaw” and connect to the skull on the left and right sides. The jawbone is the strongest of the skull and the only one that can move. This comes in handy when you ‘re biting and chewing your food .

  1. How many teeth do you have?

Ancient philosophers like Aristotle once believed that men and women had different numbers of teeth. But we now know better that the complete set of teeth in a female and male adult is thirty-two. You can do the math yourself.

Teeth are arranged in pairs in the mouth according to their different shapes, and the teeth on the left and right sides of the mouth are paired with each other. You might as well look in the mirror for yourself, divide your mouth in half vertically, and you will see that the left and right sides are essentially symmetrical.

  1. What is a crown? (not the crown the dentist put on for you)

To answer this question, we must first analyze the structure of teeth.

Teeth are like icebergs. An iceberg appears to be just a large piece of ice floating on the water, but in fact it is like a mountain made of ice, with only a small part exposed to the sea. The same goes for your teeth, which grow above and below the surface of your gums. When you open your mouth, the shiny white part you see is called the crown.

This part of the tooth comes into contact with food, drink and saliva. It’s the hard shell that protects the entire tooth, so the crown is covered by a hard substance called enamel, and underneath the enamel is a layer of hard tissue called dentin (or ivory).

  1. What is enamel?

By now you probably thought your bones were the hardest tissue in your body?


That honor should go to the enamel, the hard white material that covers the crowns and is the real champion.

Enamel is the outer layer of the tooth and its main component is calcium phosphate. This mineral makes enamel very hard, so it protects the other softer, more sensitive parts of the tooth—the dentin, pulp, nerves, and blood vessels—and it makes the tooth withstand the wear and tear of everyday use.

  1. Do the teeth have roots?

There must be. Just below the crown is the root, hidden below the gum line, where connective tissue called the periodontal ligament is anchored to the jawbone.

The root of the tooth is mostly ivory. The dentin forms channels that hold a living tissue called pulp, filled with blood vessels and nerves that run through the root of the tooth and into the jawbone.

  1. Do teeth feel?

You may find that your teeth are sensitive to cold or hot temperatures. This can happen if the roots of the teeth are exposed above the gum line, or if the enamel wears away. When the dentin that makes up the root of the tooth is exposed, the nerves inside are stimulated by the temperature of the food and drink in the mouth.

Sensations of heat and cold are transmitted by nerves in the exposed dentin to the brain, which interprets these signals as pain.

This is another reason why enamel is so important. It acts like an insulator, protecting the tooth from extreme hot and cold temperatures. The enamel protects the sensitive nerves in the dentin from painful stimulation.

  1. Why do teeth have different shapes?

Take one look at your smile and you’ll know that each of your teeth looks different. In fact, each of your teeth can vary widely in shape and size.

Although the teeth in the mouth vary, they can be classified according to their overall shape. Adults have eight incisors, four canines, eight premolars, and twelve molars.

Counting from the middle of the mouth to the left and right, the front teeth begin. These large front teeth are as sharp as knives. Next to the incisors are the canines, which have a sharp point called a crest, similar to a dog’s tines.

The following teeth are called premolars. These teeth have two peaks and are sometimes called bimodal teeth. Finally, coming in last are the molars, which are large and flat.

  1. What are the functions of the different types of teeth?

The unique shape of each tooth serves a special function when you chew food.

Incisors are good at digging in and holding a piece of food, such as taking a bite out of an apple. Your front teeth also help you sense the texture of food.

The canines tear food into smaller, more manageable pieces. Canine teeth come in handy when you’re dealing with a thick piece of protein, like roast chicken .

The shape of the small molars is between canines and molars. Small molars help you cut and tear food like canine teeth.

The molars are used for grinding food. When you chew, food moves inward in your mouth, allowing your large molars to grind it down. The molars break down food into a size that is safe to swallow.

  1. What are wisdom teeth?

We have four wisdom teeth, also called third molars. They are shaped like molars, and they function like molars when you chew. But some people’s wisdom teeth need to be removed.

Wisdom teeth erupt during your early twenties. This is the last permanent tooth to grow in the human body. When wisdom teeth erupt, they can push against other teeth, causing pressing and discomfort, and even forcing other teeth to appear crooked.

If your dentist thinks your wisdom tooth is causing a problem, it’s usually surgically removed; this procedure is usually done before it erupts. If all your wisdom teeth are removed, your number of permanent teeth will be reduced from 32 to 28, but don’t worry, you’ll be fine and may even feel more comfortable without them.

  1. If teeth are so strong, how can they break?

The bulk of enamel is calcium phosphate, a mineral compound also found in bone that gives teeth their white color and is very strong and durable, but not indestructible.

Your teeth, like the rest of your body, can get injured. If your tooth is broken or cracked, your dentist can repair the damage, but it won’t heal on its own.

  1. Are teeth considered bones?

Even though they look similar, teeth are not bones. Surprisingly, they are actually very different. why?

  • Teeth are stronger than bones. As mentioned above, enamel is the hardest tissue in the human body.
  • Human bones are protected by muscle and skin, and your teeth are simply hidden behind your lips.
  • Although teeth are made of a tougher material than bone, human bone can regenerate old and damaged tissue, whereas enamel, once lost, never returns.
  • There are blood vessels and nerves in both bones and teeth, but bones actually produce new blood cells in the bone marrow, which is different from teeth. The inside of the tooth has a lining similar to bone marrow, and this is the pulp protected by enamel.
  1. What color are healthy teeth?

Healthy teeth are bright white, the color coming from calcium phosphate in the enamel; the tips and edges of the teeth appear translucent or sky blue. This is completely normal.

Yellowing of teeth indicates loss of enamel. The dentine under the enamel is yellow, and when the enamel wears away and the dentine is exposed, the tooth loses its color and starts to turn yellow.

You can strengthen enamel and help restore its whiteness by consuming calcium-rich foods such as milk, yogurt, almonds, and edamame. You can also drink fluoridated water to support enamel health. Fluoride strengthens the enamel and prevents the yellowish dentine from being exposed.

  1. How many teeth does a child have?

A child has twenty deciduous teeth, made up of eight incisors, four canines and eight molars. These teeth will gradually fall out to make room for larger permanent teeth to grow. By about age three, most children have all their milk teeth.

Baby teeth are made of the same material as permanent teeth, with enamel covering the crown and roots made of dentin and pulp. Baby teeth are smaller and more spaced than permanent teeth because as children grow, the bones of the face and jaw grow, making the teeth more spaced apart.

  1. When do teeth start to develop?

Teeth begin to form before birth. Between the third and fourth months of pregnancy, cells called “ameloblasts” produce the enamel that makes up teeth. This occurs around the tooth germ (the first stage of tooth development). These germs remain under the surface of the gums until they are fully formed—about six months to a year after birth.

  1. Why do teeth fall out?

During childhood, teeth are lost to be replaced by larger adult teeth; this is a natural and healthy part of the dental life cycle and most baby teeth fall out by the age of twelve.

The tooth falls out when the roots of the baby teeth begin to dissolve in preparation for the arrival of the permanent teeth. This process takes several weeks and ideally allows the tooth to fall out on its own. After the deciduous teeth fall out, new permanent teeth grow in the same place.

  1. What is dental caries?

As the name suggests, dental caries (commonly known as cavities) are small holes in the layers of enamel and dentin. Dental caries is the result of tooth decay, which occurs when bacteria invade cracked or damaged teeth.

Simple sugars are the culprit in causing dental caries. Soda, fruit juice, candy, and similar foods can linger on your teeth, and bacteria in your mouth can convert these simple sugars into acids that eat away at the enamel on your teeth, and cavities develop.

You may find out on your own that you have a cavity. Many people experience tooth pain and discomfort when they have cavities; your teeth may be particularly sensitive to temperature, or you may experience pain when eating sweets.

Sometimes you need to rely on your dentist to help you find cavities. Your dentist can find caries on x-rays or use dental equipment to look for sore spots and cavities on the surface of your teeth.

Fortunately, dentists can repair cavities with dental fillings. First, the dentist uses a small drill to scrape away the decayed part of the tooth, and then uses a safe material to fill in the missing part of the tooth. Fillings may be made of gold, silver, porcelain or composite resin. Your teeth will feel much more comfortable after a filling.

  1. What is plaque?

If your teeth feel sticky after eating, plaque is to blame. When you eat sugary foods, the bacteria in your mouth settle on your teeth and gorge on those simple carbohydrates . These bacteria form a mucous film on the tooth surface called plaque.

To remove plaque is simple, brushing your teeth is the most effective way, brushing twice a day can achieve the best results. You can also rinse your mouth with an antiseptic mouthwash to keep the bacteria count in your mouth down. Or consider oral probiotics to help maintain a healthy bacterial balance.

  1. What is dental calculus?

Plaque that remains on your teeth may harden into calculus (tartar), a hard mineralized substance. Once there is calculus, tooth decay will appear soon. Tartar makes it difficult to brush properly, and it requires professional tooth cleaning to remove.

Plaque usually forms above the gum line, but tartar can build up above and below the gums. This can cause problems with the dentin and bone below the gums, so it’s important to take good care of your teeth to avoid calculus buildup.

You can protect your teeth from tartar by brushing, flossing, and using mouthwash every day. Another great way to avoid tartar is to strengthen your enamel with fluoride. Most municipal water systems add this mineral, which strengthens enamel and helps repair damage caused by bacteria and acids in the mouth.

  1. Why brush your teeth?

People have been brushing their teeth for thousands of years. In 5000 BC, the ancient Egyptians used smashed twigs and eggshells to brush their teeth. Nowadays, everyone uses a toothbrush with soft bristles to remove food leftovers after meals.

Brushing your teeth is the best way to avoid cavities and you should use a pea-sized amount of toothpaste twice a day. When brushing your teeth, brush gently; brushing too hard with your toothbrush can irritate your gums and expose the sensitive dentine underneath.

The ideal brushing time is about two minutes, and you can keep a timer or clock in the bathroom to measure brushing time. Switch sides from time to time when brushing, covering both the left and right teeth and the inner and outer sides.

Toothbrushes should be replaced when the bristles wear out, which is recommended every three to four months. After each brushing, the toothbrush should be rinsed with hot water. After recovering from a serious illness, you should also replace it with a new toothbrush.

  1. Is flossing important?

Absolutely important! Brushing your teeth cleans what you can see, but you also need to clean between your teeth. Using dental floss can scrape off food residue and plaque, and prevent tartar from accumulating in places where brushing cannot reach. Flossing also cleans the areas of your teeth that are hidden below the gum line.

Floss daily to keep the spaces between your teeth clean and healthy.

  1. How to avoid dental caries?

Brushing and flossing are the best ways to maintain healthy teeth and enamel, but diet also plays an important role in avoiding cavities.

Avoid soda, fruit juice and other sugary drinks , these are the most harmful, drink water instead . Simple carbohydrates and starchy foods should also be limited. If you have a sweet tooth, ditch the candies and eat naturally sweet fruits, which are high in fiber to stimulate saliva and remove sugar from your teeth. Acidic foods such as citrus fruits will gradually corrode the enamel, so be sure to drink plenty of water when consuming them.

Calcium-rich foods such as milk, yogurt and cruciferous vegetables are very good for your teeth. Celery and other crunchy vegetables help remove debris from your teeth. Dental care should be done in the same way as waistline control , which means choosing whole foods and nutrient-dense meals instead of easy sugary snacks.

  1. What is Bruxism?

Stress management is part of taking care of your teeth. Stress can make you tense and make you clench your fists; some people gnash their teeth. This can lead to a condition called bruxism (or teeth grinding).

Teeth grinding occurs during sleep, so people who grind their teeth often don’t know it. But grinding your teeth can cause excessive wear on the flat parts of your teeth, which can also lead to jaw soreness and headaches.

Your dentist can tell if you grind your teeth, and they may recommend that you wear braces to sleep to keep your teeth from grinding against each other.

There are other ways to combat bruxism. You may wish to practice deep breathing before bed and place a warm washcloth on your cheek below your ear to help relax the muscles in your face and jaw. Put the tip of your tongue between your front teeth and let your jaw open and relax.

If you’re stressed, find someone to talk to. Finding a trusted friend or mental health professional and telling them what you think and feel can help you manage stress or anxiety. You may find that you sleep better and stop grinding your teeth.

  1. Are your teeth causing bad breath?

Poor oral hygiene is often at the root of bad breath. When you’re not brushing or flossing, food debris on your teeth becomes a feast for bacteria in your mouth. When bacteria break down sugars and starches, they create some unpleasant smells.

Sometimes the food you eat can be the source of bad breath, with garlic and onions being the most notorious, and spicy foods are also on the list.

Whether your bad breath is caused by bacteria or the food you eat, the best way to get rid of bad breath is to brush and floss your teeth. Brush your teeth twice a day to keep your breath fresh, and if you have a particularly strong-smelling meal, clean your mouth afterwards too.

  1. Are your teeth unique?

It’s surprising, but your teeth are as unique as your DNA and fingerprints. No one’s teeth are exactly like yours; they are different in shape, size and position. Even identical twins don’t have exactly the same teeth!

Keep teeth white and bright

Take care of your teeth and make sure they are in good shape. You should take good care of your teeth to maintain your oral health. Brush and floss daily, eat less sugary foods that can eat away at enamel, and visit your dentist regularly.

Smile, no one else in the world has the same teeth as you!

24 questions about your baby teeth Read More
A Journey Through Cellular Anatomy

A Journey Through Cellular Anatomy

The year 1665: India’s Taj Mahal was completed 12 years ago; Newton will be inspired to see apples falling from a tree just over a year later ; and somewhere in London, architect and natural philosopher Robert Hooke will The thin wood slice was placed in the specimen holder of the microscope, and he observed a strange structure through the microscope.

“I observed very distinctly that this object was covered with pores throughout, like a honeycomb, but with irregularly shaped pores,” he wrote. “These pores, or cells… are really the first microscopic pores I’ve ever seen, and probably the first microscopic pores ever seen by man, because I’ve never seen any mention of them before. contributors or persons.”

Hooke discovered cells, plant cells to be exact. He actually coined the term, and he records that they resemble the dwellings of the Christian monks in a monastery he once visited. But the cells were dead, and his microscope wasn’t precise enough to see inside the cells. It wasn’t until 13 years later that anyone saw living cells up close.

Dutch businessman and scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek used a more sophisticated microscope of his own design to observe bacteria and protozoa for the first time. He called these single-celled organisms microzoans , Latin for “little animals.”

Hooke has long since died and is buried somewhere in the City of London Cemetery. He took the first steps towards what we now know as cell theory. Theoretically, every living organism on Earth consists of one or more cells.

Cells are the key units of structure and function in all living organisms. Every cell that has ever existed has been divided over and over again from cells that have ever existed, up to the 37.2 trillion cells that make up your body.

two different cell types

Cells are mainly divided into two types – prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.

Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. The “little animals” that Leeuwenhoek observed were prokaryotic cells. Bacteria and another group of cell families called archaea are classified as prokaryotes.

Cells present in plants and animals are called eukaryotic cells. This type of cell can be unicellular or multicellular.

recognize cells

But what are eukaryotic cells made of? Suppose you were to shrink down to the size of a eukaryotic cell, or even smaller, what would you see?

Imagine yourself getting smaller and the world around you getting bigger and eventually becoming a blur. As you zoom out, you start to focus on a set of structures, like the lattice that Hooke observed long ago.

Soon, you are in a certain cell. Now, some cells are more complex on the outside, and have appendages that other cells lack. Microvilli are one such feature.

Microvilli extend outward like fingers on the cell surface and are important for nutrient absorption. They also greatly expand the cell’s surface area without compromising its volume. Cilia extend even further than microvilli and can also push different substances along the cell surface.

Then there’s the flagella, which is a thin, tail-like structure that propels the entire cell, allowing the cell to swim!

cell membrane

All cells depend on the all-important cell membrane. It acts like a fence, allowing food and nutrients to enter while maintaining the contents of the cells .

Cell membranes are made of double layers of fatty acids called phospholipids. These fatty acid molecules are divided into a head and a tail. The head structure is called “hydrophilic structure”, which means it can be attracted by water. The tail structure is called “hydrophobic structure”, which means it can be repelled by water. This combination of head and tail is responsible for the structure and function of the cell membrane.

As you get smaller, you pass through cell membranes and start exploring cells. In simple terms, you can see that the bilayer structure of phospholipids is like a zipper, firmly held in place by the chemical attraction of the hydrophobic structure of its tail.

cytoplasm and cytoskeleton

Once you’ve gotten all the way inside the cell, you’ll see a medium called the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm contains a substance rich in amino acids and potassium called the cytosol. This liquid substance is also known as intracellular fluid.

You’ll also find a network that looks like a net or shelf, which is the cytoskeleton. It provides structural support to cells and allows substances to move within cells. The cytoskeleton is composed of three different types of protein fibers, which are microfilaments, intermediate fibers, and microtubules.

Microfilaments, the smallest protein fibers of the three, are composed of twisted strands of protein that can compress together to shorten the cell’s diameter. This compression often occurs in muscle cells to assist in muscle contraction.

Intermediate fibers provide the cellular framework and assist in the integration of twisted strands of proteins.

Microtubules are helical. When microtubules come together, they form a hollow cylinder. These cylinders help maintain cell shape and move organelles (another name for cellular building blocks) within the cell.

The substances they form are called centrosomes. Centrosomes are made up of structures called centrioles, which organize microtubules and provide the cell with extra structure, and they also assist in cell division during cell division.

Between the cytoplasm and the cytoskeleton, you can see the main supporting framework of the cell. You’ll also see some really weird structures, which are organelles. These important cellular components all have their specific functions.

endoplasmic reticulum

The first structure you can see that looks a lot like a series of elongated cavities is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The endoplasmic reticulum is divided into two different types.

One type is the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which extends from the nucleus and has ribosomes attached to the outside of its membrane, giving it a rougher appearance. These ribosomes make something called a polypeptide chain, but that’s just a fancy name for a protein . Proteins produced by ribosomes are released into the ER, where they are processed and prepared for release into the cell. Upon release, ribosomes are transported into closed vesicles and shed from the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which is known as vesicular transport.

It’s worth noting that ribosomes are not organelles, but they are vital to cells. This is because they are where proteins are produced. They can float in the cytoplasm to reach other locations in the cell, or they can attach to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes are composed of two parts, the small subunit and the large subunit. The small subunit is responsible for reading ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contains instructions for assembling amino acids into polypeptide chains. The large subunit does the heavy lifting of actually assembling the polypeptide chain.

Another type is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which is another organelle with a membrane. But because it lacks ribosomes on the outside, it has earned the nickname “glossy”. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum contains enzymes that modify peptides, generate lipids and carbohydrates, and destroy toxins. Most of the lipids and carbohydrates that make up cell membranes are produced in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

golgi apparatus

Now you need to turn your attention to the Golgi apparatus, which definitely has the coolest name of any organelle. The Golgi apparatus is another organelle that modifies, packages and stores proteins.

It looks like a set of containers expanding outward from the center, getting bigger and bigger. Vesicular transport transports proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. As proteins pass between containers in the Golgi apparatus, they are modified. Modifications can be made by adding or rearranging molecules with different enzymes, and sometimes by adding carbohydrates to make glycoproteins.

After passing through the final vessel, the protein is sequestered in another vesicle, a different vesicle called the secretory vesicle. The transport direction of most of these proteins is the cell membrane. They either become part of the cell membrane or are released outside the cell.


The Golgi apparatus is the basis for lysosome production. These vesicles shed from the Golgi organ and take over the cell’s garbage transport duties. Lysosomes are enclosed in a thin membrane that contains digestive enzymes that absorb cellular waste or recycle or convert defective organelles into waste. They are also crucial for protecting cells from attack by bacteria and viruses.


After going through the Golgi, you see the proteasome. These organelles manage the proteins already in the cell. They are distributed throughout the cytoplasm. The proteasome breaks down abnormal or misfolded proteins, as well as normal proteins that the cell no longer needs.

In the cytoplasm another protein called ubiquitin is placed on proteins marked by enzymes for recycling. The tagged proteins are then drawn into the proteasome and broken down by a process called proteolysis. During this process, the protein’s peptide bonds are broken, and the remaining peptide chains and amino acids are released into the cell for recycling .


On the rest of your journey, you’ll come across a bizarre structure called a peroxisome. Strictly speaking, it is not

Organelles are not enzymes either, but the word that best describes peroxisomes is protein complex.

They have membranes and also come out of the ER. Peroxisomes are responsible for breaking down long-chain fatty acids and amino acids. In the process, they produce a by-product, hydrogen peroxide, which is dangerous to cells because it reacts with many substances. Because of this, peroxisomes also carry enzymes that convert hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, sort of like cleaning up their own garbage.


After passing through the peroxisomes, you’ll see a bean-shaped organelle called the mitochondria (collectively known as mitochondria). They are the ultra-high-energy power plants of the cell. They convert food particles entering the cell into a molecule called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which is the “energy flow” in the cell. ATP stores energy and transfers it to other parts of the cell .

Mitochondria have inner and outer membranes, and their numbers vary by cell type. In general, more active cells have more mitochondria. For example, liver cells contain thousands of mitochondria. In fact, aerobic exercise can increase the number of mitochondria in the cells that make up muscle. No wonder you have more energy if you exercise regularly.


Finally, you reach the nucleus. The nucleus is the largest structure in the cell, and its two membranes form the nuclear envelope.

The nuclear envelope, together with the pores on the surface of the membrane, wraps the nucleoplasm. While the nuclear envelope acts as a barrier, pores can open to allow certain molecules to pass in and out of the nucleus. The nucleoplasm is very similar to the cytoplasm, a plasma that separates the structures contained within the nuclear envelope.

Separated within the nuclear envelope is the nucleolus, which is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), RNA, and proteins. The nucleolus is where ribosomes are made, and the proteins that ribosomes make, as mentioned above, are critical to healthy cell function.

As you get smaller, you start to notice the twisted double helix structure of your cells’ DNA . You want to reach out and touch it, and as you get smaller and closer to it, you finally reach it. For a split second, you’re back to your original volume, not sure if you’ve actually touched what you wanted to.

Somewhere in a green lawn in the City of London Cemetery, the first ray of sunlight of a new day falls on the young grass that is just sprouting. The grass seed’s cells, nourished by the rich soil and sunlight, divide and thrive in the cool morning air.

A Journey Through Cellular Anatomy Read More
Protecting the liver starts with understanding the liver

Protecting the liver starts with understanding the liver

Your heart pumps blood, your kidneys filter impurities, your stomach handles digestion, and your brain controls all bodily functions. So what is the function of a hard-working, burdened liver? It has not received the attention and appreciation it deserves. Learning about your liver is the best way to awaken your appreciation for this little-known organ.

This article lists 27 tidbits to make this most underestimated organ shine and help you better understand its structure, function and how to maintain liver health. Finally, you can share these advanced knowledge about the liver with your friends and family, and spread the good habit of loving the liver together.

structure of the liver

  1. The winner of the battle for the largest organ in the human body is the skin . But your liver holds the title of largest internal organ, weighing in at about three pounds, the second-largest.
  2. You’re not the only creature with a liver. All living organisms with spinal cords (vertebrates) have a liver, which shows the importance of the liver.
  3. The shape of the liver appears to be larger at the head and smaller at the tail. It can be subdivided into thousands of lobules, each with its own tiny canal.
  4. Your liver holds 10% of your body’s blood . It doesn’t always hold that much fluid, but it does process about 1.5 liters of blood per minute.
  5. The liver is not only an organ but also a gland. That’s because it secretes bile into the intestines.
  6. Due to biological evolutionary requirements, as long as you have a quarter of your liver, the organ can regenerate to its original size and regain full function. This is why liver donors can donate half their livers and live on.
  7. Too much fat is bad for the liver. But under normal conditions, this vital organ is about 10 percent fat.

Important functions of the liver

  1. Speaking of fat, one of the intricate jobs of the liver is fat metabolism. The bile produced by the liver is an important contributor to this task.
  2. Your liver can replenish up to a liter of bile per day to kickstart your metabolism.
  3. Bile also metabolizes other macronutrients (proteins and carbohydrates). Therefore, bile production by the liver is key to breaking down a large diet and ensuring overall health.
  4. More than just your body’s production plant and metabolic workhorse, your liver provides storage space for a variety of important nutrients, including glycogen (stored glucose), iron, copper, and various fat-soluble vitamins .
  5. Everything you eat is filtered by your liver. The liver absorbs and processes nutrients, toxins, drugs, alcohol, and hormones (hormones) from the diet.
  6. In addition to filtering, the liver performs many functions related to blood. The bile produced by the liver helps the body support vitamin K to form blood clots, and it can also:
  • Produces an important protein (albumin) in serum
  • Formation of hormones that regulate blood pressure (angiotensin)
  • Bilirubin in broken down hemoglobin
  1. The liver helps provide the body’s immunity. Both of your immune defenses—innate and adaptive—are maintained by the body’s second largest organ.
  2. Your liver is a transfer station that delivers nutrients that determine your body’s needs through the portal vein, where they are stored and processed before being sent to the detox process or eliminated as waste.
  3. When the liver is mentioned, the first thing that comes to your mind is probably the detoxification function. It excretes the toxins you absorb in two stages. The liver’s first detoxification pathway (phase one) neutralizes the compounds, while the second phase processes the by-products of the first phase and dissolves them in water for elimination.
  4. Glutathione is one of the most important antioxidant components in the human body. The body performs synthetic functions, so you can find glutathione in your body. Since it is used in the second phase of the detoxification process, the glutathione concentration in the liver is more than 10 times higher than in the rest of the body.

Health tips for nourishing the liver

  1. If offal is your thing (depending on your culture and dietary preferences), then liver is definitely the way to go. Edible animal liver is rich in protein, iron and various vitamins.
  2. Let me tell you a secret everyone knows: the food you eat has a huge impact on the organs that process it. An important key to maintaining liver health is getting enough fiber . Help this powerful detoxification organ function properly through weight management and maintaining a healthy gut microbiome.
  3. Even though fat is what the liver is made of, eating too much of it can compromise the health of your body’s largest detoxifying organ, especially saturated fat; omega-3 fatty acids and healthy fats like olive oil are smarter choices .
  4. Caffeine gives you a more energized start to the day and gives you energy to keep fighting in the afternoon, and the liver is an important organ for processing caffeine. Caffeinated beverages , especially coffee and green tea, have been shown to have liver-protective health benefits.
  5. Weight management is important to overall health —and your liver is no exception. Carrying too much weight on the body can strain the liver and ultimately affect its function. Watching your diet and exercising regularly can help you manage your weight and maintain your liver.
  6. Reducing your sugar intake is an important step in weight management, and it particularly affects your liver—mainly due to your liver’s connection to glucose storage. You can start by switching from sugary drinks to plain water, which will help you maintain healthy hydration levels.
  7. A diet based on a variety of fruits and vegetables is essential for optimal health. In addition to the macronutrients you need for overall health, some vegetables also have hepatoprotective benefits. Eat plenty of cauliflower (broccoli), spinach, berries, grapefruit, and grapes to keep your liver healthy.
  8. Your liver is responsible for processing the alcohol you consume. The liver can easily handle moderate alcohol consumption, but the buildup of too much alcohol on a party night can slow down your liver’s progress.
  9. Drugs must be broken down by the liver to be effective. Combining prescription and over-the-counter medicines and even certain nutritional supplements may trigger liver problems. Be sure to follow directions and tell your healthcare professional and pharmacist about all supplements and medicines you are taking so they can help you avoid potentially harmful effects.
  10. Taking proper precautions against environmental toxins is also how to maintain your liver. Cleansers and other chemicals you inhale must be processed and neutralized in the liver. This protection is one of the jobs of your largest detoxification organ. You can wear appropriate personal protective equipment (such as masks) when you come into contact with chemicals. ) to reduce the load on the liver.
Protecting the liver starts with understanding the liver Read More
Kidney protection tips 1

Kidney protection tips

A healthy diet and hydration are the cornerstones of nutrition , but how your body eliminates waste is just as important as what you eat. Your kidneys remove waste from your body, among other important and complex functions. Although we focus a lot of attention on the health of other specific organs, such as the heart and liver, learning how to nourish the kidneys is fundamental to optimal health.

What your kidneys do:

  • waste removal through urine
  • balance fluid levels
  • Release hormones to help maintain normal blood pressure
  • Activates Vitamin D for Bone Health
  • control red blood cell production

The kidneys regulate many of the body’s major functions to maintain overall health. That’s why kidney health is so important to keeping your body in top shape.

Learn about kidney function, the relationship between vitamin D and kidney health, and how to take care of your kidneys, including the nutrients you need for optimal health.

The role of the kidneys

Clench your hands into a fist, which is about the size of your kidney. You were born with two kidneys, located in the lower back, just below the border of the ribs. They are slightly different sizes, with your right kidney being smaller and sitting lower to give your liver room to move.

To make it easier for you to understand how the kidneys work, you can think of it this way: blood is filtered through the kidneys and returned to the circulatory system via the renal veins, and waste enters the bladder through the ureters.

We can gain a deeper understanding of the kidney from an anatomical perspective. Your kidneys are made up of millions of nephrons. The nephron is the basic unit of kidney structure and function. They filter plasma to produce urine while simultaneously absorbing water, sodium and glucose back into the circulatory system .

Each nephron consists of a renal corpuscle (the part of the kidney that filters blood) and a renal tubule (an auxiliary system that collects filtered blood). Blood first enters the kidney corpuscles and then to the filtering spaces called the glomeruli. The glomerulus has a special barrier that keeps blood cells, proteins, and large molecules in the blood, while pushing water, ions, and small molecules out of the blood. This is the first step in producing urine.

At this point, the soon-to-be urine contains most of the water and electrolytes that were previously in the blood, and the blood is therefore deprived of these nutrients. The kidney tubules return most of the water, electrolytes, and other nutrients to the blood, leaving behind water, urea, and other waste products.

This is one reason why staying hydrated is important. Without enough water, the kidneys will have a hard time filtering everything out and returning necessary nutrients to the bloodstream.

After filtration is complete, the blood leaves the kidneys through the renal veins and returns to the heart. Waste and toxins are drawn from the blood through the ureters to the bladder to be excreted in the form of urine.

not just filters

It is vital to maintain balance in life, and your kidneys help promote balance in the circulatory system. The kidneys help regulate the volume of extracellular fluid, which is important for ensuring blood flow to vital organs.

Extracellular fluids include interstitial fluid, plasma, and lymph. The kidneys also control osmotic pressure and ion concentration, ensuring that the extracellular fluid does not become too thin or too thick. A major contributor to proper fluid transport is osmotic pressure, the pressure that moves extracellular fluid across membranes.

This ensures consistent levels of key ions (charged atoms or molecules) such as sodium, potassium, and calcium . The kidneys also help regulate the pH of the plasma, which prevents the blood from becoming too acidic or alkaline.

Finally, the kidneys produce erythropoietin (EPO). Erythropoietin is the main component in the production of red blood cells. It acts like a shield, protecting red blood cells during infancy, which in turn stimulates stem cells in the bone marrow to increase production of extra red blood cells. Since red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body, maintaining proper levels of erythropoietin is extremely important to maintain the production of healthy new red blood cells.

Vitamin and Kidney Health

Vitamin D is often referred to as the “sunshine vitamin” because it is produced in the skin in response to sunlight. The kidneys convert vitamin D into useful nutrients for the body. People can get vitamin D from two sources: exposure to ultraviolet B radiation from the sun and diet, such as food and nutritional supplements.

The kidneys pull vitamin D from the blood and send it to the skeletal system. Vitamin D is important for many reasons . An example is that it helps regulate calcium and phosphate levels in the body, maintaining healthy and normal levels. Specifically, vitamin D helps promote the intestinal absorption of healthy calcium. When you have optimal calcium levels in your body, it supports healthy bones, teeth and muscles.

By learning about vitamin D, you also better understand why learning how to take care of your kidneys benefits other vital organs and systems in your body.

Kidney protection tips

You know a little about how your kidneys work. Now, let’s explore how to maintain optimal kidney health. Taking care of the kidneys can benefit the rest of the body. Simple lifestyle changes can go a long way in promoting kidney health and improving overall health.

  1. Add water

Water is essential to good health, and it also helps the kidneys to function more efficiently. Drinking eight glasses of water a day helps the kidneys absorb the fluids necessary to rid the body of excess sodium and toxins.

However, eight glasses of water is not an absolute recommended amount. In reality, the exact amount of water your body needs depends on your health and lifestyle. An indicator of adequate fluid intake is straw-colored urine. If your urine is too dark, it could be a sign of dehydration; if it’s too clear, you’re drinking too much water.

  1. monitor blood pressure

The kidneys play a major role in regulating blood pressure. A healthy blood pressure reading is between 90 / 60 mmHg and 120 / 80 mmHg. Exceeding this index will be considered as elevated blood pressure. Your circulatory system and kidneys work together to maintain a balanced and healthy level of blood. If you have any questions about your blood pressure, please contact your doctor or healthcare professional.

  1. Maintain normal, healthy blood sugar

Keeping blood sugar in a normal healthy range helps maintain kidney and overall health. Your kidneys are already working hard to filter nutrients from your blood back into your body and remove waste products. Therefore, maintaining blood sugar in the normal range can make the kidneys work more smoothly.

  1. maintain regular exercise

While you can’t stretch your kidneys, you can maintain them by walking, swimming or biking for 150 minutes a week. From forest hikes to dancing, these can help you maintain your ideal weight and avoid putting extra strain on your kidneys. Being overweight can raise blood pressure and harm the kidneys. Regular exercise can have amazing benefits for your waistline and overall health .

  1. eat a healthy diet

Diet and exercise complement each other to protect the health of the body. But if you really value your kidneys, you can go on a low-sodium diet. The kidneys have a hard time filtering excess sodium from the body. Consider eating a diet rich in fresh vegetables, fruits, fish and whole grains . Avoid foods that are bad for your kidneys, such as processed meats, too much dairy, and packaged foods.

  1. no smoking

You’ve probably heard a thousand reasons to quit smoking, and here’s one more: Nicotine is bad for blood pressure, so it’s bad for your kidney health.

Do you know?

  • You can live on only one kidney . You are born with approximately 1.5 million nephrons, approximately 750,000 nephrons per kidney. You only need 300,000 nephrons per day to filter your blood.
  • The heart pumps blood and the kidneys filter impurities . Your kidneys filter half a cup of blood every minute, or about 45 gallons of blood per day.
  • The two kidneys are not the same . The kidneys are asymmetrical organs. The right kidney is smaller and sits lower than the larger left kidney, leaving enough room for the liver to function.
  • artificial kidney . Dutch doctor Willem Kolff built the first dialysis machine out of sausage casings, orange juice cans and a washing machine. Uses the rotational power of the washing machine to filter the pumped blood.
  • Drink plenty of water . Too much water can cause hyponatremia, which is a symptom that occurs when the body is overhydrated, diluting the sodium that the kidneys can’t get rid of.
  • Kidney transplant . In 1954, Joseph E. Smith performed the first successful kidney transplant in Boston, Massachusetts.

Start taking care of your kidneys today

A kidney-healthy lifestyle supports overall health. A balanced diet combined with exercise is critical to maintaining kidney health. While maintaining the kidneys, it can also help other systems in the body. While you are protecting your kidneys, it also has great benefits for your digestive system, heart and immune system .

Our bodies are complex and complete, and the kidneys are important to maintaining your overall health. The kidneys are also delicate and complex organs that help keep the body in balance. Start by maintaining a healthy blood pressure within the normal range, which helps your kidneys function more smoothly.

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Open your eyes and learn how to take care of your senses

Open your eyes and learn how to take care of your senses

There is a commonly used phrase in English: “Stop and smell the roses.” The direct translation in Chinese is: Stop and smell the roses. But the real meaning of this sentence is to ask us to take a break from time to time to appreciate and be grateful for the good things around us. An important element of how we experience and appreciate what is around us is what our senses receive—the scent of a rose, the temperature of a sunset, the soothing sounds of music—these are the things that make us feel calm and grounded. We can maintain a mentally focused lifestyle by maintaining our sensory sensitivity . In other words: learning how to take care of our sense organs can help us find inner peace.

The following stages walk us through the tricks of caring for the senses, and you may also realize that some of your healthy habits have already laid a solid foundation for caring for the senses.

sense of touch

The upper dermis and lower epidermis of the human body contain many sensitive touch receptors, which is why caring for the skin contributes to healthy tactile function. Try incorporating these five skin-care tips into your daily routine:

  1. Implement sun protection : We can choose to wear sunscreen, long-sleeved tops, wide-brimmed sunhats, or all of the above. Protect your skin from the sun and sun damage in the way that works best for you.
  2. Supplement your skin with a healthy diet: What we eat has an impact on the inside and outside of our body. Choose to eat a healthy, plant-based diet and snacks to give your skin the nutrients it needs .
  3. Avoid sunburn or skin damage: You don’t need a reason to avoid injury other than the pain we feel. But avoiding injury does maintain the health of our tactile functions.
  4. Stay Active: Staying physically active maintains our health in many ways. A heart-pounding workout can go a long way in helping our blood flow, which can benefit our organs, including our skin.
  5. Hydration to Maintain Health : Adequate hydration is essential to maintaining overall health, and maintaining healthy skin is no exception. Don’t forget to keep hydrating throughout the day and your skin will thank you.


Shaping the perfect taste system requires many different experiences and elements, including our understanding of the relationship between taste and smell. However, to maintain the full function of a healthy palate, we can start implementing these three life tips:

  1. Diversify your diet: Try new dishes, discover exotic flavors, and add a variety of ingredients to your diet to keep your palate sharp. Adding a variety of seasonings to your diet can also help avoid overuse of salt and sugar. Use special and diverse flavors to replace excessive sugar and salt to avoid restricted taste system function.
  2. Watch out for our mouths! : The sense of taste is always on call on the tip of our tongue and in our mouth, and performing oral cleanings (don’t doubt, these include flossing) and examining our tongues may be able to reveal some health information . Setting aside two days of the year to see your dentist for checkups can also help with taste.
  3. Don’t smoke: We all know that smoking is bad for your overall health, but it can wreak havoc on your sense of taste in particular. We can smoke a delicious smoked brisket, but please avoid the bad habit of smoking.

the sense of smell

The human sense of smell is actually very resistant to stress, but healthy habits can still protect the sense of smell and its connection with the sense of taste. Maintaining a varied diet and exploring and trying new ingredients from time to time are also ways to help your sense of smell. Smoking is definitely the worst habit to do if we want to take full advantage of our sense of smell and use the connection of smell and taste to experience the full taste of food .


Now is the time to open our eyes and learn five ways in our lives that we can help take care of our visual health. And of course, these methods have a lot to do with protecting the eyeball from injury or stress.

Let’s read on:

  1. Eat foods that support eye health: Many large, comprehensive studies clearly indicate that certain nutrients do support eye health. Our healthy plant-based diet provides us with important eye health nutrients .
  2. Wear sunglasses: Sunglasses not only look handsome, they are also a fashion “eyepiece” for eye health. Our eyes, like our skin, need proper protection from the sun. And wearing cool sunglasses is the best way to protect your eyes from the sun.
  3. Be mindful of screen time: Certain things we look at put a greater strain on our eyes than other objects, and the screens that take over our modern lives are one of those things that put the greatest strain on our eyes. So don’t forget to limit your screen time, or consider wearing glasses that block the strong blue light emitted by cell phones and computer screens .
  4. Ophthalmologists are our best friends: We don’t need to invite ophthalmologists to our homes for dinner, but they are really good helpers in maintaining our visual health. Don’t forget to have regular eye exams every year.
  5. Take care with your eyes: From fingers to metal shards, there are many things in life that can damage your eyes and, in turn, affect your vision. When we are engaged in sports or need to use some dangerous materials (such as: wood, screws or chemical components), please be sure to wear tools to protect your eyes. Wearing goggles may completely ensure the health of your eyes.


When the human eardrum vibrates to a certain limit, our hearing will be damaged. Instead of testing the function of your eardrums yourself, follow a few obvious, healthy and helpful listening habits .

First, turn down the volume. Avoiding loud noises should be the best way to maintain good hearing, which means we should look for hobbies that don’t involve loud noises.

Still, if we can’t avoid loud noises, try this good habit: cover your ears. As long as we protect our eardrums properly, we can still rock out at a concert, use a loud machine, or have fun at an event that involves blaring noise.

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How to help your child to choose his modern language in college?

How to help your child to choose his modern language in college?

For a few years, the LV2 – or second living language – has been chosen from the 5th in France. In LV1 or LV2, English is compulsory. What about other languages? How to help your child to choose his second living language during his school career? 

Generally, the second living languages ​​offered are Spanish or German . Some establishments also allow you to learn Italian , while rare languages ​​such as Russian, Mandarin or Arabic are increasingly offered.

Above all, it is important not to fall into traditional prejudices and to say to oneself “my child is useless in languages” or “languages ​​are not his thing”. Languages ​​become fascinating for everyone as soon as we take an interest in the culture they convey. There is at least one foreign language made for every child. Here is a small practical guide to choose the language best suited to your desires and needs.

Spanish  : the preferred living language in college

As you probably already know, after English, Spanish is the favorite language of college students. A pleasing musicality, a structure close to French and the exoticism of South America are enough to explain this enthusiasm.

However, know that the fluency of Spanish is often overestimated . The conjugations are complex, more than in German for example! Your child will have to learn new tenses like the imperfect subjunctive, which has disappeared in French – or in any case very little used. Spanish is a language which is easy and quick to acquire the basics but which becomes more complex when it comes to mastering it to perfection.

Our advice: If your child mainly wants to focus on learning English and simply wants to acquire a few notions in an additional language, Spanish can be a very good choice.

German  : the unloved living language

This language needs more arguments to be defended, because German suffers from a bad reputation. Language ugly , difficult and a priori not very useful if we compare to the opportunities offered by Spanish. However, there is no more serious competitor to the language of Cervantes.

Strangely, a holiday in Spain is more of a dream than a stay across the Rhine. Going on a road trip to Andalusia, a city trip to Barcelona or a bad trip to Ibiza, it’s always better than visiting the port of Hamburg or the remains of the Berlin Wall, right? That’s a lot of trips for those who don’t have the guts to learn German. But do you really have to learn Spanish for many years to hope to bask in the sun on the Mediterranean coast and exchange a few words with traders?

“Yes, but Spanish is a language of the future  ! could retort ambitious parents, sensitive to the economic development of Latin America. And yes, the argument is valid! Outside of Germany, Austria, parts of Switzerland, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein and a handful of remote Belgian villages, opportunities to speak German are limited. But let’s not forget that German is the language of the present in Europe . And she still has a bright future ahead of her!

While many London economists regret Brexit, Frankfurt – which hosts the European Central Bank – is already dreaming of a new European capital of finance. Speaking German could guarantee a bright future for your child. Learning Spanish for Argentina is a bit like learning English for New Zealand. How many Hispanic people actually plan to go to South America? Conversely, how many of these Hispanics will be required to go to Germany one day or another? Germany is our biggest neighbour. And our best friend too! Your child’s future will certainly be played out in Europe and on this continent, there are 100 million German speakers against 45 million Spaniards.

Our advice: If your child wishes to honor the Franco-German friendship, does not tend to take the easy way out and is possibly considering a career abroad, German is the perfect language!

Italian  : the discreet living language

For the French, learning a Latin language is an easy choice. Too often, Spanish overshadows Italian . If we rely only on the numbers, then no hesitation: Spanish has around 500 million native speakers compared to 70 million for Italian. But numbers aren’t everything… Spanish is the second most studied language in France, while Italian speakers are rarer . Learning Italian is an axis of differentiation that requires little effort. Moreover, once Italian is acquired, understanding Spanish and even learning it becomes easier!

Our advice  : Italian, an alternative to Spanish to be preferred when possible.

Rare languages: differentiation

Mandarin, Portuguese, Arabic… many other living languages ​​are taught in college. But much less often than “the three classics” mentioned above. If given the opportunity, your child has every interest in choosing one of these rare languages.

The choice can of course be motivated by personal reasons. Thus, if you have Portuguese, Russian or North African origins but have little or poor command of the national language of the country, this can allow your child to reconnect with their roots. Either way, a rare language will give your child an indisputable head start . In a country where mastering English remains problematic, that of Russian or Japanese can surprise and come with interesting opportunities.

Our advice: A rare language represents an intelligent and differentiating choice which will help your child in his future, both professionally and personally.

Now it’s up to you to discuss it with your child. A living language is not chosen lightly. Finally, let’s not forget what matters most: motivation  !

How to help your child to choose his modern language in college? Read More
What is glottophobia, and how to fight against it?

What is glottophobia, and how to fight against it?

Inclusiveness, progress, curiosity, humility, discovery and open-mindedness: these are some of the values ​​that make Babbel and our experts proud . These are the values ​​that give us more energy every day to pass on our passion for languages ​​and cultures to you, and allow you to become who you want to become, without judgment or distinction.

Much more than a simple commercial posture, these values ​​are our pillars. Just like your passions, your culture, your place of origin or your language, your accent is a trademark, an important element of your identity that nothing and no one should be able to prevent you from displaying proudly.

So that this pride can never be questioned by anyone, we have chosen in the following article to speak to you in a simple word. A rarely used word, little known and yet heavy with meaning: the word ”  glottophobia  “.

What is glottophobia?

The word glottophobia is a neologism coined by French linguist Philippe Blanchet. The term is based on the association of two Greek roots . On the one hand, γλῶττα ( glotta ), the language in ancient Greek, which is also found in polyglot for example. On the other hand, the suffix -phobia which comes from φόβος ( phobos ), fear.

If the structure of the word can be scary, so can the reality it defines. Glottophobia refers to linguistic discrimination , that is to say the fact of excluding an individual or a population for an appropriation of the language that deviates from the norms. It should not be confused with the notion of glossophobia , synonymous with logophobia , which refers to the fear of speaking in public. Glottophobia is based on an ideology of language that only accepts a correct form, considered superior. Other ways of speaking, especially when they involve accents, are then considered inferior and a source of shame.

The Greek etymology of the term glottophobia may seem ironic since βάρϐαρος ( barbaros ), which qualified people who did not speak ancient Greek, gave the word barbarian in French. A concrete example of glottophobia which shows that if the term is recent, the discrimination it names has no age. There is another illustration in the Bible, with the episode of shibboleth , a word that only the Gileadites knew how to pronounce correctly. They subjected their enemies to a pronunciation test. If the sound “schi” was pronounced “si”, then the error was interpreted as proof of their foreign origin and the person had their throat cut!

Discrimination by accent

In French alone, there are many accents . Accent from the North, Alsatian accent, Corsican accent, Toulouse or Marseille accent… not to mention the Belgian, Swiss or Quebec accent . Beyond regions, an accent can also betray membership in a community or social class, such as an aristocratic accent or a suburban accent. Glottophobes rarely realize the scope of their teasing and ironic remarks. To reject an accent is to reject an origin, social or geographical. Like any discrimination, the consequences can be dramatic.

But glottophobia goes beyond simply disregarding mispronounced vowels, distorted consonants, or spurious eh at the end of sentences. To say that German is an ugly language is also a form of glottophobia. More than the phobia of an accent, glottophobia can then be the rejection of a foreign language or outside a community.

Glottophobia, a universal discrimination?

Unfortunately, glottophobia knows no borders. The concept is of French origin, but the reality is universal. In Iran, Guilaki is denigrated in the face of Persian, while Coptic disappeared from Egypt following pressure from Arabic. And if the situation has improved today, Tamil has long been repressed in Sri Lanka to promote only Sinhalese.

The same goes for Belarusian under the USSR, which was considered a dialect of Russian and not a full-fledged Slavic language. In Minsk, the recognition of the national language has only recently taken place. We can also mention the glottophobic policy pursued for several decades by the United Kingdom by encouraging the practice of English to the detriment of Celtic languages ​​in Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Not to mention the contempt of the French during the colonial era for the pronunciation of Cameroonians or Algerians.

In view of history, we also see that wars and other ethnic conflicts are often conducive to the expression of glottophobia. The hatred of culture becomes the hatred of language. In 1937, the presence of many Haitians in the sugar cane fields of the Dominican Republic gave rise to an often forgotten ethnic massacre . French-speaking workers unable to correctly pronounce the word perejil ( parsley in Spanish) were then unmasked and massacred with machetes. A modern-day Shibboleth that claimed tens of thousands of victims!

In Bosnia-Herzegovina, people only speak Bosnian since the break with Serbia. In Montenegro, Montenegrin was born with the independence of the country. In fact, Serbian, Montenegrin and Bosnian are one and the same language. As for the decline of Yiddish since 1945, it is closely linked to the fate reserved for the Jews of Central Europe during the Second World War. More recently, in China, the repression of the Uyghurs also involves the repression of their language, related to Turkish and Uzbek and without any connection with Mandarin.

 ” Do you speak French ? » 

Implicitly, the question of glottophobia raises a broader question: what do expressions such as “  speak English  ”, “  speak Spanish  ” or “speak French  ” mean? In the case of French, it was the vagaries of history that imposed it as the national language of France. But it could have been otherwise, just as Castilian became “Spanish” to the detriment of Catalan. Or Venetian or Neapolitan become the national language of Italy instead of speaking Tuscan.

As these few examples underline – there would still be a lot to say on the subject – glottophobia hides a linguistic domination, often unconscious and discriminating. Like all discrimination, glottophobia is an injustice. To denounce it is to create a more favorable context for language learning to turn yesterday’s glottophobes into tomorrow’s polyglots!

What is glottophobia, and how to fight against it? Read More
French modal verbs how to use them well

French modal verbs: how to use them well?

It’s not just in English , Spanish or German that modal auxiliaries are important . They are as essential as they are frequent in French! Today we suggest you review the use of the most common French modal verbs: duty , power and want . These little verbs are also called “modal auxiliaries” because they are often followed by an infinitive verb. 

French modal verbs are essential in everyday life: thanks to them, you can express obligation, possibility, permission and will. Indispensable, we tell you!

To have, to be able, to want: how to use the three French modal verbs?

1. Use the verb must to express obligation or probability

In French, unlike English, obligation and necessity are expressed with a single modal verb: duty . With duty , we can express must , have to and need to at the same time . It’s practical, isn’t it? So who said French grammar was complicated?

Example : 

  • You have to take a vacation my heart, you have to rest!

-> You must take a vacation honey, you need to rest!

  • have to take Lola to her dance class at 5:00.

-> I have to bring Lola to her dance class at 5:00.

Duty can also express probability, for example: Anne-Sophie is not there, she must be sick. Anne-Sophie isn’t here, she must be sick.

Have you noticed that French modal verbs are used without a preposition? Indeed, the infinitive verb is placed after. She must be… 

How to conjugate duty in the present: 

  • I’ve got to
  • you must
  • he/she/it must
  • we must
  • you have to
  • they must 

The pronunciation is the same for the three singular persons: I, you, he/she/on {dwa}. It’s getting easier and easier, isn’t it?

2. Use the verb can to express possibility or permission

Pouvoir works like can in English. It expresses what is possible in a particular context. 

Example : 

  • can bring wine and cheese tonight.

-> I can bring wine and cheese tonight .

Power can also express the permission given by someone. 

  • Passengers can use their computer during the flight.

-> Passengers can use their computer during the flight.

Warning: unlike can , power does not express a learned skill. For this, we use the verb to know . 

Note the difference with these examples: 

  • know how to swim.

-> I can swim (because I learned how to).

  • can swim. 

-> I can swim (because it’s possible to: the water isn’t too cold, there is no shark…).

How to conjugate power in the present:

  • I can 
  • you can 
  • he/she/it can
  • we can
  • you can
  • they can 

Again, for the first three people, the verb is pronounced the same: I, you, he/she/it {p ø }

3. Use the verb to want to express a will 

Want expresses the will, like want to in English.

Example :

  • Do you want to go to the restaurant or the cinema?

-> Do you want to go to the restaurant or to the cinema?

Here, to want is also followed by the infinitive, as in English , but without a preposition!

Good to know As you want means as you wish in English. It’s a very useful expression when you can’t decide! 

How to conjugate to want in the present:

  • I want
  • you want
  • he/she/it wants
  • we want
  • you want
  • they want 

That’s all you need to know to use French modal verbs well… and to explain them to your friends who are learning the language of Molière!

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